Minister says polio ‘outbreak’ source could be narrowed down to ONE home or street

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Polio’s source could be traced again to a single home or street, a minister claimed right now amid fears the paralysis-causing virus is as soon as once more spreading in Britain.

Lord Kamall stated ‘world-beating’ ways discovered in the course of the Covid pandemic have been being deployed to monitor down ‘affected person zero’.

He revealed the investigation will see officers ‘go alongside the pipes’ to find the place the virus — not liable for an outbreak within the UK for the reason that mid-Eighties — got here from.

Positive samples have been first detected at a sewage plant in Beckton, which covers a inhabitants of 4million folks in North and East information/london/index.html” id=”mol-79a10cb0-f300-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″>London. Signs of it have been first present in February.

‘In concept it’d be doable to discover particular person households and streets however it’s too early,’ Lord Kamall stated.

UK health Security Agency (UKHSA) bosses suppose a traveller, presumably from Pakistan, Afghanistan or Nigeria, shed the virus of their faeces after getting a reside oral vaccine, which is utilized in some nations with present outbreaks because it has a speedy impact.

The virus was detected on the Beckton sewage remedy works, which covers a inhabitants of 4 million in north and east London

The polio vaccine is given at age eight, 12 and 16 weeks as a part of the six-in-one vaccine after which once more at three years as a part of a pre-school booster. The closing course is given at age 14. The World <a href=health Organization has set the brink of a profitable college jabs programme at 95 per cent uptake, which England is failing to hit by all accounts” class=”blkBorder img-share” type=”max-width:100%” />

The polio vaccine is given at age eight, 12 and 16 weeks as a part of the six-in-one vaccine after which once more at three years as a part of a pre-school booster. The closing course is given at age 14. The World health Organization has set the brink of a profitable college jabs programme at 95 per cent uptake, which England is failing to hit by all accounts

The above map, based on UKHSA data, looks at the share of Year 9s who had all three polio jabs in the 2020/2021 academic year. The final polio booster is offered to all children by the age of 14 as part of the NHS school vaccination programme

The above map, based mostly on UKHSA information, appears to be like on the share of Year 9s who had all three polio jabs within the 2020/2021 tutorial 12 months. The closing polio booster is obtainable to all youngsters by the age of 14 as a part of the NHS college vaccination programme

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Fewer than HALF of youngsters in some elements of England have been vaccinated towards polio

Fewer than half of youngsters in elements of England have been vaccinated towards polio, official information suggests as health chiefs sound the alarm over a suspected outbreak of the illness that has been eradicated in Britain for many years.

Parents of unvaccinated youngsters are to be contacted by the NHSinformation/nhs/index.html” id=”mol-d3f74fc0-f301-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″ class=”class”> as a part of a focused vaccine drive in London — the place polio is assumed to be spreading — amid fears the illness could take off for the primary time in 40 years.

Children are routinely immunised towards polio however eight native authorities in England — largely within the capital — had 50 per cent or decrease uptake amongst Year 9s final 12 months.

Just 35 per cent of 13 and 14-year-olds had obtained their closing booster in Hillingdon, West London, which has the worst protection within the nation,  adopted by Brent, the place a 3rd have been totally vaccinated.

London has at all times lagged behind the remainder of the nation when it comes to vaccine protection however charges dropped nationally in the course of the pandemic, linked to a lull in appointments, college closures and an increase in vaccine hesitancy.

Nottingham (50.4 per cent) and Middlesbrough (45.6 per cent) now even have among the poorest charges, in the meantime protection is under 60 per cent in Torbay, Leicester, Sandwell, Plymouth, Luton and Devon.

The UK health Security Agency declared a nationwide incident yesterday after discovering a number of optimistic polio samples in sewage which contained mutations that recommend the virus is evolving because it spreads between folks.

For comparability, the UK and US each use a ‘killed’ virus vaccine that can’t trigger an infection.

It is probably going that the person then contaminated others by failing to wash their arms correctly and contaminating food and drinks or presumably by coughing and sneezing.

Experts are trying on the chance that only one household or prolonged household could be affected.

‘This is admittedly world-beating in what we’re doing right here, it’s a first and it reveals that we’re forward, however one of many points with being forward is that we detect issues that may not have been detected earlier,’ Lord Kamall stated.

He harassed: ‘No-one has received polio and no instances have been recognized, what it’s is that we’ve discovered it within the sewage.’

Labour’s Lord Reid of Cardowan referred to as on the Government to keep ‘most transparency’ concerning the nationwide incident, and requested if worries concerning the Covid vaccine had led to a ‘pretty substantial decline in vaccinations for different potential illnesses’.

Lord Kamall replied that the Government was ‘fairly clear’ that ‘folks should come ahead for all vaccines’.

He added: ‘What is admittedly necessary is that we recognise that vaccine-derived polio can doubtlessly unfold however it’s uncommon and the danger to the general public general is restricted.’

The minister additionally stated the NHS would be ‘reaching out to dad and mom’ with youngsters underneath 5 years previous in London who will not be up to date.

‘But we’re asking for it each methods, for fogeys to examine their data,’ he added.

‘The UK is taken into account to be free from polio, so let’s be fairly clear about that, and we’re recognising a possible danger given this world-leading surveillance of sewage.’

Labour frontbencher Baroness Merron stated the health minister ought to work ‘carefully with the Treasury to guarantee a correctly funded communications and vaccination marketing campaign.’

NHS information reveals that fewer than half of youngsters in elements of England have been vaccinated towards polio.

Children are routinely immunised towards polio however eight native authorities in England — largely within the capital — had 50 per cent or decrease uptake amongst Year 9s final 12 months.

Parents are being urged to ensure their children's polio vaccinations are up to date, particularly after the pandemic when school immunisation schemes were disrupted and uptake fell. Pictured, a girl gets her four-in-one pre-school jab offered by the NHS

Parents are being urged to guarantee their youngsters’s polio vaccinations are up to date, significantly after the pandemic when college immunisation schemes have been disrupted and uptake fell. Pictured, a lady will get her four-in-one pre-school jab provided by the NHS

Just 35 per cent of 13 and 14-year-olds had obtained their closing booster in Hillingdon, West London, which has the worst protection within the nation. It was adopted by Brent, the place a 3rd have been totally vaccinated.

London has at all times lagged behind the remainder of the nation when it comes to vaccine protection however charges dropped nationally in the course of the pandemic, linked to a lull in appointments, college closures and an increase in vaccine hesitancy. 

It will not be clear how far the virus has unfold however health consultants are involved medical doctors now not recognise the signs of polio as a result of it has been eradicated in Britain since 2003.

While the virus can lead to everlasting paralysis in uncommon instances, it usually causes flu-like signs that could simply be misdiagnosed as different extra frequent infections, like Covid.

Meanwhile, information from the information/world-health-organization/index.html” id=”mol-8529dc40-f302-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″ class=”class”>World health Organization reveals 114 of 160 nations haven’t hit its threshold of 95 per cent protection in one-year-olds.

Experts deem having greater than 9 in 10 folks in each group vaccinated essential to stop the extremely contagious virus from spreading.

Being vaccinated is much more necessary for youngsters than adults as a result of they’re extra seemingly to catch and subsequently fall in poor health with the illness.

While the bulk will expertise delicate or no signs in any respect, for as many as one in 100, it might trigger everlasting paralysis or loss of life. 

Among the weak nations are the UK and US, the place general uptake nationally is as little as 93 per cent. But in elements of Africa, as few as 4 in 10 are immunised.

And 35 nations, together with France, Germany and Portugal, haven’t shared their polio uptake information — which means even decrease numbers could be protected in some locations. 

Polio dates again to 1500 BC, crippled rulers in Ancient Egypt and paralysed 1000’s of kids for many years earlier than being virtually completely worn out by a vaccine that used a weakened model of virus: The illness’s historical past laid naked

You could be forgiven for pondering polio was a illness resigned to historical past.

The paralysis-causing illness was formally eradicated within the UK in 2003 and the final home outbreak was within the Eighties. But dwindling vaccination charges, partially due to complacency, seem to have allowed polio to creep again in many years later.

The archaic illness has existed so long as human civilisation itself, with the earliest data courting again to historic information/egypt/index.html” id=”mol-eba72ab0-f305-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″>Egypt.

But it was till the 1800s that outbreaks started to actually take off.

Millions of Brits will bear in mind the devastation polio triggered within the early Nineteen Fifties and why it was one of the feared infections on this planet. The UK was rocked by a sequence of polio epidemics within the mid-Twentieth century that noticed 1000’s crippled by the virus annually.

Mary Berry, the ex-Great British Bake Off choose, was hospitalised after contracting polio aged 13, leaving her with a twisted backbone and broken left hand.

Despite being eradicated in a lot of the world, it nonetheless spreads in two nations — Afghanistan and Pakistan — whereas elements of Africa undergo flare-ups of vaccine-derived variations of the virus.

Here, MailOnline takes a have a look at the historical past of the virus: 

1500 BC

Polio epidemics, when the virus is continually spreading inside a group, didn’t begin occurring till the late 1800s.

But data recommend it dates again to as early as 1570 BC in historic Egypt.

This relies on a drawing on a stele — a stone slab — which reveals a priest with a withered leg and utilizing a cane to assist him stroll.

And an Egyptian ruler referred to as Siptah, who died in 1188 BC, is assumed to have had polio based mostly on his deformed left leg and foot, noticed by archaeologists who discovered his mummy in 1905. 

1700s 

But aside from these two incidents, polio largely vanished from the document books till it was logged in in 1789 by London-based Dr Michael Underwood. 

He printed the primary clear description of polio in infants, who’re significantly weak to the illness, in a medical textbook, calling it ‘debility of the decrease extremities’.

Records show polio dates back to as early as 1570 BC in ancient Egypt. This is based on a drawing on a stele - a stone slab (pictured) - which shows a priest with a withered leg and using a cane to help him walk

Records present polio dates again to as early as 1570 BC in historic Egypt. This relies on a drawing on a stele – a stone slab (pictured) – which reveals a priest with a withered leg and utilizing a cane to assist him stroll

1800s 

In the early 1800s, a handful of polio instances have been sporadically reported in medical journals. 

But scientists imagine folks have been generally uncovered to the virus within the typical unhygienic environments of the time, particularly after they have been younger.

However, polioviruses began inflicting issues in Europe and North America on the finish of the 1800s. This was, bizarrely, blamed on sanitation bettering. 

Polio spreads by consuming an contaminated individual’s faecal matter — which might occur on account of poor hand hygiene. 

While higher water and sewage methods noticed the demise of typhoid and cholera, outbreaks of polio grew to become extra frequent.

Three-quarter of those that grow to be contaminated do not have signs. But round 1 / 4 undergo a flu-like sickness, together with a sore throat, fever and tiredness. 

Up to one in 200 will develop extra severe signs that have an effect on their mind and spinal twine, together with paralysis. 

Professor Ian Jones, a virologist at Reading University, defined the virus ‘wasn’t an issue till hygiene improved’. 

Previously, low ranges of an infection would have given immunity to folks however the unexpected circumstance of higher residing situations was that this declined and polio ‘took off’, he stated. 

Professor Paul Hunter, an infectious illness skilled on the University of East Anglia, instructed MailOnline that though polio has been round for hundreds of years or millennia, it was solely in the course of the early a part of the Twentieth century that large epidemics of paralytic polio took off. 

He defined: ‘When each baby received contaminated with poliovirus within the first couple of years of life you continue to noticed some paralysis nevertheless it was solely when infections have been delayed till older age that such paralysis grew to become extra frequent. 

‘Young youngsters who contract poliovirus an infection typically undergo solely delicate signs, however delay these infections to teenagers and maturity and paralysis turns into extra frequent.’

The first epidemic struck greater than a dozen folks in Norway in 1868, whereas the second, which occurred 13 years later, triggered an identical variety of confirmed instances in Sweden. An outbreak within the US in 1894 noticed 132 folks contaminated. 

Early 1900s

It was in 1916 that the primary large-scale epidemic took maintain in Brooklyn, New York, with greater than 9,000 instances and a pair of,000 deaths. 

The outbreak unfold to the remainder of the US and led to greater than 27,000 instances and 6,000 polio deaths that 12 months.

Newspapers printed the names and addresses of contaminated folks, ‘hold out’ notices have been nailed to their doorways and their households have been quarantined. 

Parents have been urged to hold their youngsters away from public areas, comparable to swimming swimming pools, parks and seashores, over virus fears.

The outbreak triggered concern the world over and sped up analysis into the sickness.

Scientists had already made some progress in understanding and treating the virus.

In 1840, German orthopaedic Dr Jacob von Heine had grow to be the primary to produce a sturdy study on polio. 

He recommended that the illness could be contagious. By 1908, Austrian physicians Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper say that polio could be attributable to a virus. 

Early therapies of the illness included tying the paralysed limbs of contaminated sufferers to splints, in a bid to cease their muscular tissues from tightening.

But by 1928, an invention called the iron lung was rolled out to revolutionise how the disease was treated. The contraption – a respirator that resembled a 'coffin on legs' – was developed for patients whose lungs were so paralysed that they could no longer breathe unaided. Paul Alexander, 76, from Texas, is still in the machine today — 70 years after contracting polio at the age of six in 1952

But by 1928, an invention referred to as the iron lung was rolled out to revolutionise how the illness was handled. The contraption – a respirator that resembled a ‘coffin on legs’ – was developed for sufferers whose lungs have been so paralysed that they could now not breathe unaided. Paul Alexander, 76, from Texas, continues to be within the machine right now — 70 years after contracting polio on the age of six in 1952

But by 1928, an invention referred to as the iron lung was rolled out to revolutionise how the illness was handled. 

The contraption – a respirator that resembled a ‘coffin on legs’ – was developed for sufferers whose lungs have been so paralysed that they could now not breathe unaided. 

It was first used that decade to save an American baby contaminated with the virus who wanted assist respiration. The majority sufferers stayed contained in the chamber for brief spells till their lungs recovered. 

But some struck down by everlasting paralysis stayed contained in the machines for the remainder of their lives. 

Paul Alexander, 76, from Texas, continues to be within the machine right now — 70 years after getting polio on the age of six in 1952.

And by 1930, Elizabeth Kenny, a self-trained nurse from Queensland, Australia, developed a remedy making use of sizzling packs to muscular tissues and train to hold stimulating nerve cells and keep away from long-term muscle injury. The strategies are nonetheless used right now.

As a part of the elevated deal with analysis, Australian virologists Sir Macfarlane Burnet and Dame Jean MacNamara recognized for the primary time that there have been three varieties of the polio virus in 1931.

The combat towards the virus was additional boosted when a staff of scientists at Harvard Medical School, led by Dr Jonas Salk, within the Nineteen Forties used blood samples of contaminated sufferers to extract and develop the virus in reside cells. 

Late 1900s

By 1955 the staff, with the assist of funds from the March of Dimes non-profit organisation, developed the primary efficient vaccine — an injectable inactive (killed) polio vaccine (IPV). 

Nearly 2million youngsters within the US have been jabbed as a part of the most important medical trials ever seen on the time. 

They proved profitable and 450million doses of the jab have been dished out throughout the nation. Cases subsequently fell from 18 per 100,000 folks to two per 100,000.

The following decade, a staff on the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, led by medical researcher Dr Albert Sabin, developed a second vaccine utilizing a reside model of the virus that could be given in drops by the mouth.

This vaccine was way more efficient and have become the preferred all through the world. 

Politicians within the US did not assist Dr Sabin’s oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), so he examined it within the former Soviet Union. 

The USSR rolled out the jab and polio subsequently declined. Drops in instances have been additionally seen in close by Eastern Europe and Japan. 

The US licensed the jabbed in 1961 and it grew to become the principle vaccine used worldwide. 

The fight against polio was further boosted when a team of scientists at Harvard Medical School, led by Dr Jonas Salk, in the 1940s used blood samples of infected patients to extract and grow the virus in live cells. Pictured: Dr Salk at the Municipal Hospital laboratory in April 1955 after announcement of the successful vaccine results

The combat towards polio was additional boosted when a staff of scientists at Harvard Medical School, led by Dr Jonas Salk, within the Nineteen Forties used blood samples of contaminated sufferers to extract and develop the virus in reside cells. Pictured: Dr Salk on the Municipal Hospital laboratory in April 1955 after announcement of the profitable vaccine outcomes

Great Britain was pronounced clear of polio in 2003 with the last case coming in 1984. A young girl is pictured getting her polio jab in May 1956

Great Britain was pronounced away from polio in 2003 with the final case coming in 1984. A younger lady is pictured getting her polio jab in May 1956

By 1955 researchers at Harvard Medical School, with the support of funds from the March of Dimes non-profit organisation, developed the first effective vaccine against polio — an injectable inactive (killed) polio vaccine (IPV). Pictured: children getting a lump of sugar while getting a polio vaccine at a mobile unit in Blackburn in Lancashire, England in 1965

By 1955 researchers at Harvard Medical School, with the assist of funds from the March of Dimes non-profit organisation, developed the primary efficient vaccine towards polio — an injectable inactive (killed) polio vaccine (IPV). Pictured: youngsters getting a lump of sugar whereas getting a polio vaccine at a cell unit in Blackburn in Lancashire, England in 1965

Professor Jonathan Ball, a virologist from the University of Nottingham, instructed MailOnline that polio had a ‘devastating impact’ worldwide and the introduction of the 2 jabs was ‘immense’. 

Professor Hunter defined that the reside vaccine, first developed by Dr Sabin, does a greater job at stopping an infection ‘however can very not often trigger paralysis’. 

Meanwhile, the inactivated vaccine, first made by Dr Salk, ‘doesn’t trigger an infection and continues to be wonderful at stopping paralysis however not fairly pretty much as good at stopping an infection’, he stated. 

Studies all through the Nineteen Seventies and Eighties revealed the virus was widespread in lots of richer nations, which pushed leaders to introduce routine vaccination utilizing the OPV in nationwide immunisations programmes. 

The jabs noticed polio vanish in developed nations. In the UK, instances fell from a peak of 8,000 a 12 months to only a few hundred earlier than being eradicated.

In the US, infections fell from a peak of 58,000 to zero only a few years after the jab was dished out.

Kathleen O’Reilly, an affiliate professor in statistics for infectious illness and skilled in polio eradication, instructed MailOnline: ‘After the second world battle instances of paralytic polio in England and Wales rose significantly, reaching a number of thousand instances annually. 

‘Vaccines have been developed in response to these worrying outbreaks, and have been launched within the late Nineteen Fifties. 

‘The variety of polio instances rapidly declined, and for the reason that Nineteen Seventies solely a small variety of instances have been reported annually. There has not been a single case of polio within the UK since 1984.’

But in poorer nations, the place the virus triggered fewer outbreaks, uptake was a lot decrease.

The World health Organization (WHO) launched an worldwide immunisation rollout in 1974, in an try to vaccinate all youngsters towards polio. 

By 1988, the UN health company set the goal of eradicating the virus globally by 2000. Two years later, a world virus surveillance system is ready up to detect the virus. 

The US logged its final case in 1991, in a three-year-old boy referred to as Luis Fermin Tenorio residing in Junin, northern Peru. 

The WHO licensed the area as polio-free three years later — the period set by the company earlier than a nation can be deemed to have eradicated the virus. 

A team at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, led by medical researcher Dr Albert Sabin, developed a livevaccine using a live version of the virus that could be given in drops through the mouth. This vaccine was much more effective than the inactivated one, and became the most popular throughout the world. Politicians in the US didn't support Dr Sabin's oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), so he tested it in the former Soviet Union.

A staff on the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, led by medical researcher Dr Albert Sabin, developed a second vaccine utilizing a reside model of the virus that could be given in drops by the mouth. This vaccine was way more efficient than the inactivated one, and have become the preferred all through the world. Pictured: a health employee giving a oral polio vaccine to a toddler in Karachi, Pakistan

There was also success in ridding the world of two wild types of the virus, with type two eradicated in 2015 and type three stamped out by 2019. However, the WHO global goal of eradicating the virus by 2000 has still not been met. Polio is endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pictured: a child in Kabul, Afghanistan being given the oral vaccine in November 2021

There was additionally success in ridding the world of two wild varieties of the virus, with sort two eradicated in 2015 and sort three stamped out by 2019. However, the WHO international aim of eradicating the virus by 2000 has nonetheless not been met. Polio is endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pictured: a toddler in Kabul, Afghanistan being given the oral vaccine in November 2021

2000

In 2002, Europe was licensed as polio-free. Its closing case was logged in a 33-month-old baby in Turkey in 1999.

The Western Pacific was labelled polio-free in 2000, with the final confirmed an infection being in a 15-month-old lady referred to as Mum Chanty in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. And the WHO confirmed South East Asia is virus free in 2014. 

There was additionally success in ridding the world of two wild varieties of the virus, with sort two eradicated in 2015 and sort three stamped out by 2019. 

However, the WHO international aim of eradicating the virus by 2000 has nonetheless not been met. Polio is endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 

Travellers from these two nations regularly unfold the virus to different nations.

2010

China misplaced its polio-free standing in 2011 after the an infection unfold to the nation from Pakistan. However, it regained it after the outbreak fizzled out.

Professor Ball defined: ‘The reside vaccine has confirmed to be extremely efficient at eliminating the virus. 

‘But on uncommon events it might revert to wild-type and trigger the illness; that is why nations that do eliminate the virus swap to utilizing killed vaccine to hold their populations secure.’

Professor Jones stated the dilemma round polio is now round eradication. ‘Is it price the fee by way of money and lives misplaced to eradicate the previous few instances or is it higher to keep the place we’re?

‘Lastly, one other dilemma, whether it is eradicated how lengthy do you proceed to vaccinate and with what?’ 

UK health chiefs revealed polio could be spreading in the neighborhood for the primary time in 4 many years after the virus was noticed in sewage samples in elements of London on June 22, 2022.

It is an developed model of a weakened type of the virus present in reside attenuated vaccines, which use a modified piece of the virus.

But there are indicators it’s spreading between folks as officers have picked up a number of samples from totally different folks, every with new mutations. 

Professor Hunter added: ‘Whilst a lot of the world has moved away from reside attenuated vaccine some nations nonetheless use it and there’s a danger which you could get secondary infections (typically a member of the family) which very not often can be related to paralysis in somebody who has not been immunised.

‘The concern right here is that even a vaccine derived virus if it continues to unfold could finally recuperate its full virulence over a 12 months or two after which trigger an outbreak of paralytic polio in individuals who haven’t been vaccinated and that may be a catastrophe. 

‘So most likely the present state of affairs doesn’t pose a direct risk to public health but when transmission goes on lengthy sufficient and the virus recovers its virulence it could grow to be a public health catastrophe.’ 

How lengthy does the polio vaccine final? What are the virus’ signs? How many individuals are contaminated within the UK? EVERYTHING you want to know amid fears paralysis-causing virus is spreading

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WHAT IS POLIO? 

Polio is a severe viral an infection that used to be frequent everywhere in the world.

The virus lives within the throat and intestines for up to six weeks, with sufferers most infectious from seven to 10 days earlier than and after the onset of signs. 

But it might unfold to the spinal twine inflicting muscle weak spot and paralysis. 

The virus is extra frequent in infants and younger youngsters and happens underneath situations of poor hygiene.

How lethal is it? 

Most folks present no indicators of an infection in any respect however about one in 20 folks have minor signs comparable to fever, muscle weak spot, headache, nausea and vomiting. 

Around one in 50 sufferers develop extreme muscle ache and stiffness within the neck and again. 

Less than one per cent of polio instances lead to paralysis and one in 10 of these lead to loss of life.

Of those that develop signs, these have a tendency to seem three-to-21 days after an infection and embrace:

  • High temperature
  • Sore throat
  • Headache
  • Abdominal ache
  • Aching muscular tissues
  • Nausea and vomiting

How does it unfold?

People can catch polio through droplets within the air when somebody coughs or sneezes, or if they arrive into contacted with the faeces of an contaminated individual.

This contains meals, water, clothes or toys.

Are there totally different strains?

There are three strains of ‘wild’ polio, which has been largely eradicated all through Europe, the Americas, Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

Types 2 and three have been eradicated thanks to a world mass vaccine marketing campaign, with the final instances detected in 1999 and 2012 respectively.

The remaining, sort 1, wild polio stays endemic in solely two nations, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Wild polio has been eradicated in virtually each nation on this planet thanks to vaccines.

But the worldwide rollout has spawned new varieties of strains referred to as vaccine-derived polioviruses.

These are strains that have been initially utilized in reside vaccines however spilled out into the group and developed to behave extra just like the wild model. 

Is polio nonetheless round within the UK?

The final polio outbreak was within the Nineteen Seventies.

The final case of person-to-person transmission within the UK was in 1984, which additionally marked the final wild polio case.

But there have been a number of dozen instances of vaccine-derived polioviruses, though they’ve been one-offs, with no onward transmission.

Am I vaccinated towards polio?

The polio vaccine is obtainable as a part of the NHS routine childhood vaccination programme.

It is given at age eight, 12 and 16 weeks as a part of the six-in-one vaccine after which once more at three years as a part of a pre-school booster. The closing course is given at age 14.

Uptake has fallen barely nationally in the course of the Covid pandemic however stays above 90 per cent nationally. Rates are decrease in London and in poor and ethnic minority communities.

Just 86.7 per cent of one-year-olds in London have had their first dose dose of polio vaccine in contrast to the UK common of 92.6 per cent.

There are considerations vaccine hesitancy has risen in the course of the Covid disaster due to misinformation unfold about jabs for that virus and college closures.

Wasn’t polio eradicated?

There are three variations of untamed polio – sort one, two and three.

Type two was eradicated in 1999 and no instances of sort three have been detected since November 2012, when it was noticed in Nigeria. 

Both of those strains have been licensed as globally eradicated.

But sort one nonetheless circulates in two nations – Pakistan and Afghanistan.

These variations of polio have been virtually pushed to extinction due to vaccines. 

But the worldwide rollout has spawned new varieties of strains referred to as vaccine-derived polioviruses.

These are strains that have been initially utilized in reside vaccines however spilled out into the group and developed to behave extra just like the wild model.

How many individuals are contaminated?

health chiefs have not but detected an precise case. 

Instead, they’ve solely noticed the virus in sewage samples.

But they stated a number of closely-related polio viruses have been present in sewage samples taken in North and East London between February and May.

This suggests there has ‘seemingly’ been unfold between linked people who at the moment are shedding the pressure of their faeces.

The UK health Security Agency is investigating if any group transmission is going on.

It is hoped that the instances will be confined to a single family, or prolonged household. 

How does it unfold?

It is spreads between folks by contact with meals, water, or objects which were contaminated with the faeces of somebody contaminated.

Places with a excessive inhabitants, poor sanitation and excessive charges of diarrhoea-type diseases are significantly vulnerable to seeing polio unfold.

Unvaccinated individuals are at a excessive danger of catching the an infection.

There is a few concern that the virus seems to be spreading in London, which has poorer polio vaccine uptake than the remainder of the nation.

How is polio recognized?

Doctors can spot polio based mostly on their signs. 

If an individual is within the first week of an sickness, a throat swabs is taken, or a faeces or blood pattern can be taken up to 4 weeks after signs started.

The pattern is then despatched to a laboratory, with exams then confirming whether or not the virus is current.

What does a nationwide incident imply?

UKHSA tips set out that when a vaccine-derived polio virus is noticed in Britain.

This instructs health chiefs to arrange a nationwide response to handle and coordinate the way it responds.

It contains becoming a member of up native public health groups. 

While the polio samples have solely been noticed in London, health chiefs say it is important to guarantee different elements of the nation are conscious and taking mandatory motion to defend folks of their space. 

How is polio handled?

There is not any treatment for polio, though vaccines can stop it.

Treatment can solely alleviate its signs and decrease the danger of long-term drawback.  

Mild instances – that are the bulk – usually cross with painkillers and relaxation.

But extra severe instances could require a hospital keep to be attached to machines to assist their respiration and be helped with common stretches and workout routines to stop long-term issues with muscular tissues and joints.

In the Nineteen Twenties, the iron lung – a respirator that resembled a ‘coffin on legs’ – was used to deal with polio. 

It was first used that decade to save a toddler contaminated with the virus who wanted assist respiration.

Paul Alexander, 76, from Texas, continues to be within the machine right now, 70 years later, after contracting polio on the age of six in 1952.

I missed out on a vaccine as a toddler, can I nonetheless get it?

health chiefs have inspired everybody who’s unvaccinated towards polio to contact their GP to catch up. 

However, they warned vaccination efforts in London will focus initially on reaching out to dad and mom of under-fives that haven’t had or missed their jabs, amid fears it’s spreading within the capital.

The NHS presently affords the polio jab as half of a kid’s routine vaccination schedule. The polio vaccine is included within the six-in-one vaccination, which is given to youngsters when they’re eight, 12 and 16 weeks previous.

When polio weakened muscles used in breathing, patients used to be treated using an 'iron lung'. Pictured: A female patient in her iron lung at Fanzakerley hospital in Liverpool, now called Aintree University Hospital

When polio weakened muscular tissues utilized in respiration, sufferers used to be handled utilizing an ‘iron lung’. Pictured: A feminine affected person in her iron lung at Fanzakerley hospital in Liverpool, now referred to as Aintree University Hospital

health floatRHS” data-version=”2″ id=”mol-eba38130-f305-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″ data-permabox-url=”https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-10946123/Minister-says-polio-outbreak-source-narrowed-ONE-home-street.html”>

WHAT JABS SHOULD I HAVE HAD BY AGE 18 

Vaccinations for varied disagreeable and lethal illnesses are given free on the NHS to youngsters and youngsters.

Here is a listing of all of the jabs somebody ought to have by the age of 18 to be certain that they and others throughout the nation are protected:

Eight weeks previous

  • 6-in-1 vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, Haemophilus influenzae sort b (Hib), and hepatitis B.
  • Pneumococcal (PCV)
  • Rotavirus
  • Meningitis B 

12 weeks previous

  • Second doses of 6-in-1 and Rotavirus 

16 weeks previous

  • Third dose of 6-in-1
  • Second doses of PCV and males. B 

One 12 months previous 

  • Hib/meningitis C
  • Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)
  • Third dose of PCV and meningitis B 

Two to eight years previous

  • Annual youngsters’s flu vaccine

Three years, 4 months previous

  • Second dose of MMR
  • 4-in-1 pre-school booster for diptheria, tetanus, polio and whooping cough

12-13 years previous (women)

  • HPV (two doses inside a 12 months)

14 years previous

  • 3-in-1 teenage booster for diptheria, tetanus and polio
  • MenACWY  

 Source: NHS Choices

Protection towards polio is boosted in top-up jabs when youngers are three-years-and-four-months previous and when they’re 14.

Most Londoners are totally jabbed towards polio. But uptake will not be 100 per cent.

How lengthy does safety from the polio vaccine final?

Scientists have no idea how lengthy individuals who obtained the inactivated polio vaccine, the one used within the UK, lasts for.

But they count on it present immunity for years after getting jabbed.

Two doses are 90 per cent efficient, whereas three doses are 100 per cent efficient. 

Can it kill?

Polio can kill in uncommon instances. But it’s extra well-known for inflicting paralysis, which might lead to everlasting incapacity and loss of life.

Up to a tenth of people who find themselves paralysed by the virus die, because the virus impacts the muscular tissues that assist them breathe.

What are polio’s signs?

Three-quarters of individuals contaminated with polio do not need any seen signs.

Around one-quarter may have flu-like signs, comparable to a sore throat, fever, tiredness, nausea, a headache and abdomen ache. These signs often final up to 10 days then go away on their very own.

But up to one in 200 will develop extra severe signs that may have an effect on the mind and spinal twine. This contains paraesthesia – pins and needles within the leg – and paralysis, which is when an individual cannot transfer elements of the physique.

This will not be often everlasting and motion will slowly come again over the following few weeks or months.

However, even children who seem to totally recuperate from polio can develop muscle ache, weak spot or paralysis as an grownup – 15 to 40 years after they have been contaminated.

Do vaccines trigger polio?

Although extraordinarily uncommon, instances of vaccine-derived polio have been reported.

They don’t make the vaccinated individual in poor health however slightly trigger them to shed tiny items of the virus, which might then infect different, unvaccinated folks.

This is simply the case with the oral polio vaccine, which makes use of a reside and weakened model of the virus to stimulate an immune response.

But, over time, the pressure can mutate to behave extra like wild variations of polio. 

How did polio find yourself within the UK?

The polio noticed in Britain was detected in sewage, which is monitored by health chiefs, slightly than in an individual.

This suggests the virus has been imported from a rustic the place the reside polio vaccine continues to be getting used.

Professor Paul Hunter, an infectious illness skilled on the University of East Anglia, stated: ‘Such vaccine derived transmission occasions are properly described and most in the end fizzle out with out inflicting any hurt however that depends upon vaccination protection being improved.’

Polio used to paralyse millions of children around the world every year in the 1940s and 1950s but has been eliminated in virtually every country thanks to vaccines

Polio used to paralyse tens of millions of kids world wide yearly within the Nineteen Forties and Nineteen Fifties however has been eradicated in just about each nation thanks to vaccines

The remaining, type 1, wild polio remains endemic in only two countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan but parts of Africa still suffer flare-ups

The remaining, sort 1, wild polio stays endemic in solely two nations, Afghanistan and Pakistan however elements of Africa nonetheless undergo flare-ups

Could this set off an outbreak?

Uptake of the polio vaccine is round 90 per cent throughout the UK so it’s unlikely to trigger a large outbreak.

But it has dipped additional over the past 12 months due to the knock-on results of the pandemic.

There are considerations vaccine hesitancy has risen in the course of the Covid disaster due to misinformation unfold about jabs for that virus and college closures.

Experts say the easiest way to stop the virus from spreading is for Britons to guarantee their vaccinations are up to date, particularly for youngsters.

Dr Kathleen O’Reilly, an affiliate professor in statistics for infectious illness and skilled in polio eradication, stated that every one nations are vulnerable to an outbreak till all polio instances are stopped globally. 

This ‘highlights the necessity for polio eradication, and continued international assist for such an endeavour’, she added.

When was final time Britain noticed a case of polio?

The final time somebody caught polio inside the UK was in 1984 and Britain was declared polio-free in 2003.

But there have been dozens of imported instances since then, which are sometimes detected in sewage surveillance.

However, these have at all times been one-off findings that weren’t detected once more and occurred when an individual vaccinated abroad with the reside oral polio vaccine travelled to the UK and ‘shed’ traces of the virus of their faeces.

Now, UK health officers have detected a number of closely-related viruses in sewage samples taken between February and May. This discovering suggests there was unfold between shut contacts in North and East London, the place the samples have been collected.

Where did polio originate?

Polio epidemics, when the virus is continually spreading inside a group, didn’t begin occurring till the late 1800s.

But scientists say that it’s an historic illness that first struck folks in Egypt as early as 1570 BC. This relies on depictions of paralysis and weak limbs from that point.

A health care provider in London was the primary to publish a transparent description of polio in infants in a medical textbook in 1789.

 

 

How lengthy does the polio vaccine final? What are the virus’ signs? How many individuals are contaminated within the UK? EVERYTHING you want to know amid fears paralysis-causing virus is spreading

health floatRHS” data-version=”2″ id=”mol-99fc5da0-f302-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″ data-permabox-url=”https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-10946123/Minister-says-polio-outbreak-source-narrowed-ONE-home-street.html”>

WHAT IS POLIO? 

Polio is a severe viral an infection that used to be frequent everywhere in the world.

The virus lives within the throat and intestines for up to six weeks, with sufferers most infectious from seven to 10 days earlier than and after the onset of signs. 

But it might unfold to the spinal twine inflicting muscle weak spot and paralysis. 

The virus is extra frequent in infants and younger youngsters and happens underneath situations of poor hygiene.

How lethal is it? 

Most folks present no indicators of an infection in any respect however about one in 20 folks have minor signs comparable to fever, muscle weak spot, headache, nausea and vomiting. 

Around one in 50 sufferers develop extreme muscle ache and stiffness within the neck and again. 

Less than one per cent of polio instances lead to paralysis and one in 10 of these lead to loss of life.

Of those that develop signs, these have a tendency to seem three-to-21 days after an infection and embrace:

  • High temperature
  • Sore throat
  • Headache
  • Abdominal ache
  • Aching muscular tissues
  • Nausea and vomiting

How does it unfold?

People can catch polio through droplets within the air when somebody coughs or sneezes, or if they arrive into contacted with the faeces of an contaminated individual.

This contains meals, water, clothes or toys.

Are there totally different strains?

There are three strains of ‘wild’ polio, which has been largely eradicated all through Europe, the Americas, Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

Types 2 and three have been eradicated thanks to a world mass vaccine marketing campaign, with the final instances detected in 1999 and 2012 respectively.

The remaining, sort 1, wild polio stays endemic in solely two nations, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Wild polio has been eradicated in virtually each nation on this planet thanks to vaccines.

But the worldwide rollout has spawned new varieties of strains referred to as vaccine-derived polioviruses.

These are strains that have been initially utilized in reside vaccines however spilled out into the group and developed to behave extra just like the wild model. 

Is polio nonetheless round within the UK?

The final polio outbreak was within the Nineteen Seventies.

The final case of person-to-person transmission within the UK was in 1984, which additionally marked the final wild polio case.

But there have been a number of dozen instances of vaccine-derived polioviruses, though they’ve been one-offs, with no onward transmission.

Am I vaccinated towards polio?

The polio vaccine is obtainable as a part of the NHS routine childhood vaccination programme.

It is given at age eight, 12 and 16 weeks as a part of the six-in-one vaccine after which once more at three years as a part of a pre-school booster. The closing course is given at age 14.

Uptake has fallen barely nationally in the course of the Covid pandemic however stays above 90 per cent nationally. Rates are decrease in London and in poor and ethnic minority communities.

Just 86.7 per cent of one-year-olds in London have had their first dose dose of polio vaccine in contrast to the UK common of 92.6 per cent.

There are considerations vaccine hesitancy has risen in the course of the Covid disaster due to misinformation unfold about jabs for that virus and college closures.

A nationwide incident was declared by UK health chiefs right now after it emerged that polio could be spreading in the neighborhood as soon as extra.

The illness – thought to be resigned to historical past – has been noticed in sewage samples in elements of London.

It is an developed model of a weakened type of the virus present in reside attenuated vaccines, which use a modified piece of the virus.

But there are indicators it’s spreading between folks as officers have picked up a number of samples from totally different folks, every with new mutations. 

Here is the whole lot you want to know concerning the UK polio state of affairs to this point: 

Wasn’t polio eradicated?

There are three variations of untamed polio – sort one, two and three.

Type two was eradicated in 1999 and no instances of sort three have been detected since November 2012, when it was noticed in Nigeria. 

Both of those strains have been licensed as globally eradicated.

But sort one nonetheless circulates in two nations – Pakistan and Afghanistan.

These variations of polio have been virtually pushed to extinction due to vaccines. 

But the worldwide rollout has spawned new varieties of strains referred to as vaccine-derived polioviruses.

These are strains that have been initially utilized in reside vaccines however spilled out into the group and developed to behave extra just like the wild model.

How many individuals are contaminated?

health chiefs have not but detected an precise case. 

Instead, they’ve solely noticed the virus in sewage samples.

But they stated a number of closely-related polio viruses have been present in sewage samples taken in North and East London between February and May.

This suggests there has ‘seemingly’ been unfold between linked people who at the moment are shedding the pressure of their faeces.

The UK health Security Agency is investigating if any group transmission is going on.

It is hoped that the instances will be confined to a single family, or prolonged household. 

How does it unfold?

It is spreads between folks by contact with meals, water, or objects which were contaminated with the faeces of somebody contaminated.

Places with a excessive inhabitants, poor sanitation and excessive charges of diarrhoea-type diseases are significantly vulnerable to seeing polio unfold.

Unvaccinated individuals are at a excessive danger of catching the an infection.

There is a few concern that the virus seems to be spreading in London, which has poorer polio vaccine uptake than the remainder of the nation.

How is polio recognized?

Doctors can spot polio based mostly on their signs. 

If an individual is within the first week of an sickness, a throat swabs is taken, or a faeces or blood pattern can be taken up to 4 weeks after signs started.

The pattern is then despatched to a laboratory, with exams then confirming whether or not the virus is current.

What does a nationwide incident imply?

UKHSA tips set out that when a vaccine-derived polio virus is noticed in Britain.

This instructs health chiefs to arrange a nationwide response to handle and coordinate the way it responds.

It contains becoming a member of up native public health groups. 

While the polio samples have solely been noticed in London, health chiefs say it is important to guarantee different elements of the nation are conscious and taking mandatory motion to defend folks of their space. 

How is polio handled?

There is not any treatment for polio, though vaccines can stop it.

Treatment can solely alleviate its signs and decrease the danger of long-term drawback.  

Mild instances – that are the bulk – usually cross with painkillers and relaxation.

But extra severe instances could require a hospital keep to be attached to machines to assist their respiration and be helped with common stretches and workout routines to stop long-term issues with muscular tissues and joints.

In the Nineteen Twenties, the iron lung – a respirator that resembled a ‘coffin on legs’ – was used to deal with polio. 

It was first used that decade to save a toddler contaminated with the virus who wanted assist respiration.

Paul Alexander, 76, from Texas, continues to be within the machine right now, 70 years later, after contracting polio on the age of six in 1952.

I missed out on a vaccine as a toddler, can I nonetheless get it?

health chiefs have inspired everybody who’s unvaccinated towards polio to contact their GP to catch up. 

However, they warned vaccination efforts in London will focus initially on reaching out to dad and mom of under-fives that haven’t had or missed their jabs, amid fears it’s spreading within the capital.

The NHS presently affords the polio jab as half of a kid’s routine vaccination schedule. The polio vaccine is included within the six-in-one vaccination, which is given to youngsters when they’re eight, 12 and 16 weeks previous.

When polio weakened muscles used in breathing, patients used to be treated using an 'iron lung'. Pictured: A female patient in her iron lung at Fanzakerley hospital in Liverpool, now called Aintree University Hospital

When polio weakened muscular tissues utilized in respiration, sufferers used to be handled utilizing an ‘iron lung’. Pictured: A feminine affected person in her iron lung at Fanzakerley hospital in Liverpool, now referred to as Aintree University Hospital

British children getting their oral vaccine for polio in 1965 — which used a live version of the virus — 12 years after the first vaccine was invented

British youngsters getting their oral vaccine for polio in 1965 — which used a reside model of the virus — 12 years after the primary vaccine was invented 

health floatRHS” data-version=”2″ id=”mol-9a000720-f302-11ec-9b47-0d65ffe15a75″ data-permabox-url=”https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-10946123/Minister-says-polio-outbreak-source-narrowed-ONE-home-street.html”>

WHAT JABS SHOULD I HAVE HAD BY AGE 18 

Vaccinations for varied disagreeable and lethal illnesses are given free on the NHS to youngsters and youngsters.

Here is a listing of all of the jabs somebody ought to have by the age of 18 to be certain that they and others throughout the nation are protected:

Eight weeks previous

  • 6-in-1 vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, Haemophilus influenzae sort b (Hib), and hepatitis B.
  • Pneumococcal (PCV)
  • Rotavirus
  • Meningitis B 

12 weeks previous

  • Second doses of 6-in-1 and Rotavirus 

16 weeks previous

  • Third dose of 6-in-1
  • Second doses of PCV and males. B 

One 12 months previous 

  • Hib/meningitis C
  • Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)
  • Third dose of PCV and meningitis B 

Two to eight years previous

  • Annual youngsters’s flu vaccine

Three years, 4 months previous

  • Second dose of MMR
  • 4-in-1 pre-school booster for diptheria, tetanus, polio and whooping cough

12-13 years previous (women)

  • HPV (two doses inside a 12 months)

14 years previous

  • 3-in-1 teenage booster for diptheria, tetanus and polio
  • MenACWY  

 Source: NHS Choices

Protection towards polio is boosted in top-up jabs when youngers are three-years-and-four-months previous and when they’re 14.

Most Londoners are totally jabbed towards polio. But uptake will not be 100 per cent.

How lengthy does safety from the polio vaccine final?

Scientists have no idea how lengthy individuals who obtained the inactivated polio vaccine, the one used within the UK, lasts for.

But they count on it present immunity for years after getting jabbed.

Two doses are 90 per cent efficient, whereas three doses are 100 per cent efficient. 

Can it kill?

Polio can kill in uncommon instances. But it’s extra well-known for inflicting paralysis, which might lead to everlasting incapacity and loss of life.

Up to a tenth of people who find themselves paralysed by the virus die, because the virus impacts the muscular tissues that assist them breathe.

What are polio’s signs?

Three-quarters of individuals contaminated with polio do not need any seen signs.

Around one-quarter may have flu-like signs, comparable to a sore throat, fever, tiredness, nausea, a headache and abdomen ache. These signs often final up to 10 days then go away on their very own.

But up to one in 200 will develop extra severe signs that may have an effect on the mind and spinal twine. This contains paraesthesia – pins and needles within the leg – and paralysis, which is when an individual cannot transfer elements of the physique.

This will not be often everlasting and motion will slowly come again over the following few weeks or months.

However, even children who seem to totally recuperate from polio can develop muscle ache, weak spot or paralysis as an grownup – 15 to 40 years after they have been contaminated.

Do vaccines trigger polio?

Although extraordinarily uncommon, instances of vaccine-derived polio have been reported.

They don’t make the vaccinated individual in poor health however slightly trigger them to shed tiny items of the virus, which might then infect different, unvaccinated folks.

This is simply the case with the oral polio vaccine, which makes use of a reside and weakened model of the virus to stimulate an immune response.

But, over time, the pressure can mutate to behave extra like wild variations of polio. 

How did polio find yourself within the UK?

The polio noticed in Britain was detected in sewage, which is monitored by health chiefs, slightly than in an individual.

This suggests the virus has been imported from a rustic the place the reside polio vaccine continues to be getting used.

Professor Paul Hunter, an infectious illness skilled on the University of East Anglia, stated: ‘Such vaccine derived transmission occasions are properly described and most in the end fizzle out with out inflicting any hurt however that depends upon vaccination protection being improved.’

Polio used to paralyse millions of children around the world every year in the 1940s and 1950s but has been eliminated in virtually every country thanks to vaccines

Polio used to paralyse tens of millions of kids world wide yearly within the Nineteen Forties and Nineteen Fifties however has been eradicated in just about each nation thanks to vaccines

The remaining, type 1, wild polio remains endemic in only two countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan but parts of Africa still suffer flare-ups

The remaining, sort 1, wild polio stays endemic in solely two nations, Afghanistan and Pakistan however elements of Africa nonetheless undergo flare-ups

Could this set off an outbreak?

Uptake of the polio vaccine is round 90 per cent throughout the UK so it’s unlikely to trigger a large outbreak.

But it has dipped additional over the past 12 months due to the knock-on results of the pandemic.

There are considerations vaccine hesitancy has risen in the course of the Covid disaster due to misinformation unfold about jabs for that virus and college closures.

Experts say the easiest way to stop the virus from spreading is for Britons to guarantee their vaccinations are up to date, particularly for youngsters.

Dr Kathleen O’Reilly, an affiliate professor in statistics for infectious illness and skilled in polio eradication, stated that every one nations are vulnerable to an outbreak till all polio instances are stopped globally. 

This ‘highlights the necessity for polio eradication, and continued international assist for such an endeavour’, she added.

When was final time Britain noticed a case of polio?

The final time somebody caught polio inside the UK was in 1984 and Britain was declared polio-free in 2003.

But there have been dozens of imported instances since then, which are sometimes detected in sewage surveillance.

However, these have at all times been one-off findings that weren’t detected once more and occurred when an individual vaccinated abroad with the reside oral polio vaccine travelled to the UK and ‘shed’ traces of the virus of their faeces.

Now, UK health officers have detected a number of closely-related viruses in sewage samples taken between February and May. This discovering suggests there was unfold between shut contacts in North and East London, the place the samples have been collected.

Where did polio originate?

Polio epidemics, when the virus is continually spreading inside a group, didn’t begin occurring till the late 1800s.

But scientists say that it’s an historic illness that first struck folks in Egypt as early as 1570 BC. This relies on depictions of paralysis and weak limbs from that point.

A health care provider in London was the primary to publish a transparent description of polio in infants in a medical textbook in 1789.

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